The habitat of hardware bugs

Yossi Kreinin

The Moscow apartment which little me called home was also home to many other creatures, from smallish cockroaches to biggish rats. But of course we rarely met them face to face. Evolution has weeded out those animals imprudent...


Digital PLL's -- Part 2

Neil Robertson

In Part 1, we found the time response of a 2nd order PLL with a proportional + integral (lead-lag) loop filter.  Now let’s look at this PLL in the Z-domain [1, 2].  We will find that the response is characterized by a loop natural...


From Baremetal to RTOS: A review of scheduling techniques

Jacob Beningo
5 comments

Transitioning from bare-metal embedded software development to a real-time operating system (RTOS) can be a difficult endeavor. Many developers struggle with the question of whether they should use an RTOS or simply use a bare-metal scheduler....


Choosing a Microcontroller for Your Vehicle

Ed Nutter

There are many things to take into consideration when choosing a microcontroller or microprocessor for your autonomous vehicle.VoltageSome processors run on 5V and others use 3.3V.  Be sure to check the documentation before you buy. ...


Digital PLL's -- Part 1

Neil Robertson

1. Introduction Figure 1.1 is a block diagram of a digital PLL (DPLL).  The purpose of the DPLL is to lock the phase of a numerically controlled oscillator (NCO) to a reference signal.  The loop includes a phase detector to compute ...


Best Firmware Architecture Attributes

Dr. Tayyar GUZEL
1 comment

Architecture of a firmware (FW) in a way defines the life-cycle of your product. Often companies start with a simple-version of a product as a response to the time-to-market caveat of the business, make some cash out...


A few uses for an autonomous vehicle

Ed Nutter

From the time technology that we have come to know was invented, it has been used to gain an advantage militarily or to make life easier. Military usage seems to be a driving factor, but it is not the only factor. Guerilla tactics played...


Stability or insanity

Tim Wescott

I've just spent over two weeks getting ready to do my next video.  It was a combination of one of those vast underestimations one occasionally makes, combined with falling into a bit of an obsession.I am, at this point, not only wondering if...


Beyond the RTOS: A Better Way to Design Real-Time Embedded Software

Miro Samek

An RTOS (Real-Time Operating System) is the most universally accepted way of designing and implementing embedded software. It is the most sought after component of any system that outgrows the venerable "superloop". But it is also the design...


Data Types for Control & DSP

Tim Wescott

There's a lot of information out there on what data types to use for digital signal processing, but there's also a lot of confusion, so the topic bears repeating.I recently posted an entry on PID control. In that article I glossed over the data...