Sign in

Not a member? | Forgot your Password?

Search blogs

Search tips

Free PDF Downloads

Advanced Linux Programming

What Every Programmer Should Know About Memory

Introduction to Embedded Systems

C++ Tutorial

Embedded Systems - Theory and Design Methodology

Microcontroller Programming and Interfacing

Introduction to Microcontrollers

More Free PDF Downloads

Recent Blogs on EmbeddedRelated

Two Capacitors Are Better Than One
posted by Jason Sachs

Coding Step 1 - Hello World and Makefiles
posted by Stephen Friederichs

Introduction to Microcontrollers - Ada - 7 Segments and Catching Errors
posted by Mike Silva

OOKLONE: a cheap RF 433.92MHz OOK frame cloner
posted by Fabien Le Mentec

Practical protection against dust and water (i.e. IP protection)
posted by Dr Cagri Tanriover

Specifying the Maximum Amplifier Noise When Driving an ADC
posted by Rick Lyons

How to make a heap profiler
posted by Yossi Kreinin

Vintage robotics!
posted by Lonnie Honeycutt

Little to no benefit from C based HLS
posted by Christopher Felton

DSPRelated and EmbeddedRelated now on Facebook & I will be at EE Live!
posted by Stephane Boucher

Introduction to Microcontrollers

1 - Beginnings

2 - Further Beginnings

3 - Hello World

4 - More On GPIO

5 - Interrupts

6 - More On Interrupts

7 - Timers

8 - Adding Some Real-World Hardware

9 - More Timers and Displays

10 - Buttons and Bouncing

11 - Button Matrix & Auto Repeating

12 - Driving WS2812 RGB LEDs

13 - 7-segment displays & Multiplexing

14 - Ada - 7 Segments and Catching Errors

See Also


Embedded Systems Blogs > Stephen Friederichs > Data Validity in Embedded Systems

Stephen Friederichs (contact)
Embedded developer with 8 years experience in the aerospace/defense fields with a background in Electrical Engineering - specifically controls and communication systems.

Would you like to be notified by email when Stephen Friederichs publishes a new blog?


Pageviews: 317

Data Validity in Embedded Systems

Posted by Stephen Friederichs on Oct 5 2013 under I/O | Sensors | System Design   

If you take a high-level view of software systems you might say that the overall goal of software is to generate outputs from inputs. It’s a gross simplification of a nuanced and complex field but the truth of the statement is unarguable: data goes in, is manipulated and then is spat out again.That’s what software does. The simplicity of the statement contributes to the joy of Computer Science majors who take an abstract view of everything from software to love but infuriates engineers.  Engineers of all stripes are tasked with dragging down the ivory-tower proclamations of so-called ‘scientists’ into the dirty, complicated real world. What, they ask, if your data is wrong? What if it describes something that just plain can’t happen?  What do you do then?  While Computer Scientists may be hesitant to discriminate between data sets based on vague ideas of ‘impossibility’ (‘After all’, they might argue, ‘How are we to know whether reality isn’t in the wrong?’’) engineers are tasked with keeping bridges erect and planes aloft. When developing embedded systems for the real world an understanding of how to account for data validity will help you develop more reliable software.

In real-world embedded systems data can be invalid for a variety of reasons. A 32-bit unsigned integer can represent an absurd range of numbers - depending on the real-world data you’re trying to represent you may only use a small fraction of that entire range. For example, an angle sensor should return an angle measurement between 0 and 360 degrees. There are any number of errors that can cause the data received from the sensor to fall outside of that range - communication errors, parsing errors, malfunction of the magnetometer, etc. Alternately, if the data is received periodically over a serial link you need to ensure that data has actually been received before attempting to generate any outputs. As a programmer you can’t blindly utilize data without knowing whether it is valid and have a strategy to handle invalid data.

There are many schemes that can be used to keep track of the validity of software. In the above example you know that angle data can only range from 0 to 360. The first and quickest validity check you could implement is to ensure that the data is, in fact, between 0 and 360 degrees.  That takes the form of a single ‘if’ statement whenever the data is used. If the data is utilized in several different places and it would be tedious to validate repeatedly, the check could be performed once and you can utilize a boolean variable to store the result. Alternately, if the data is invalid you could set it to an agreed-upon value that signifies an error (such as -1). Every time new data arrives, its validity would be checked and stored for subsequent use.

It isn’t always possible to perform a simple range check on data to determine its validity. UART data, for example, is typically stored in an unsigned char variable. In this situation the entire range of the unsigned char represents valid data, so there’s no indication in the data itself whether or not it is invalid. In this case, the validity typically depends on several external factors. Generally, microcontrollers have hardware status flags that will tell you whether a reception error has occurred (such as a parity failure, overflow, framing error, etc.). This information contributes to the validity of the received data and can be stored in a boolean which will be checked along-side the data.

Another factor to consider in the validity of data is its timeliness. Real-time systems typically operate on a frame rate: all inputs and outputs are refreshed every 10ms for example. In some real-time systems, any data the arrives late cannot be relied on and must be discarded. In this situation it would be typical to have a flag that represents whether new data has been received. When new data is received (generally in an ISR or retrieved from a buffer at the beginning of a frame) the flag is set to true. Any processes that utilize the data check the flag - if the data is stale, it’s unused.  Once the frame is finished executing the data is marked as stale so that it won’t be used until it’s refreshed.

All of this still leaves you with the question of what to do with invalid data. This is generally dependent on the type of system you’re designing. For a hard real-time safety-critical system you may not have any recourse except to cease operation and enter a fail-safe state. That’s the worst possible case. In less critical systems it may be possible to continue operation with reduced performance: you might be able to get away with holding the last valid value in memory, extrapolating new data based on past inputs or even estimating the invalid data from other system parameters. If there’s a user interface in your application you can raise a notification to the user to address the situation or at least make them aware of it. In some systems it may be permissible to indicate there is no valid data - perhaps display a ‘?’ to indicate no valid data.

By adopting or adapting some of the techniques suggested in this article you can write more reliable software that respects the realities of the world it operates in.

Rate this article:
Rating: 0 | Votes: 0
posted by Stephen Friederichs
Embedded developer with 8 years experience in the aerospace/defense fields with a background in Electrical Engineering - specifically controls and communication systems.

Previous post by Stephen Friederichs: Code Metrics - SLOC Count
Next post by Stephen Friederichs: Implementing State Machines
all articles by Stephen Friederichs

Comments / Replies

There are no comments yet!

Sorry, you need javascript enabled to post any comments.