Some decades ago, the embedded industry shifted focus from assembly to C programming. Faster processors and better compilers allowed for raising the level of abstraction in order to improve development productivity and quality. We are now in the middle of a new major shift in firmware development technology. The increasing use of real-time operating systems (RTOS) represents the third generation of embedded software development. By using an RTOS, you introduce a new abstraction level that enables more complex applications, but not without complications.