> compiler will turn x / 4 into (x >> 2), > assuming that it is used).This is safe to do for unsigned numbers and numbers (x) that can be determined to be positive at compile time. Regards, -- Walter Banks Byte Craft Limited http://www.bytecraft.com

# floating point calculations.

Started by ●February 10, 2009

Reply by ●February 12, 20092009-02-12

Reply by ●February 12, 20092009-02-12

On Feb 12, 10:30 am, Grant Edwards <gra...@visi.com> wrote:> On 2009-02-12, CBFalconer <cbfalco...@yahoo.com> wrote: > > > In general, when using software floating point, you will find that > > addition (or subtraction) is the slowest basic operation, due to > > the need to find a common 'size' to inflict on both operands. > > Division is the next slowest, and multiplication the fastest. > > I've not found that to be true on any of the platforms I've > benchmarked. For example, I timed the four operations on a > 6800, and add/sub was about 1ms, and mult/div was about 4ms.I am surprised at this result. I worked on array processors many years ago and division does not have a direct method of calculation. Instead they used an iterative approximation method using multiplies to get the estimate. I believe that for 32 bit floating point (not IEEE, it was before that) they used 7 iterations which got very close. On a 100 MFLOPS machine running at 25 MHz (ECL!) they did a adds and multiplies in the same time. Of course, this is not software, but the same complexity applies to software operations. In general the adds require a denormalization, the add and a renormalization while the multiply only requires the multiply and normalization steps. However, the multiply can take more than one operation compared to the add. I have read that to implement the full IEEE spec requires a lot of extra steps for error checking which will slow down all of it. Any idea how they are performing the divide that it runs as fast as the multiply? Rick

Reply by ●February 12, 20092009-02-12

rickman wrote:> Any idea how they are performing the divide that it runs as fast as > the multiply?1. There are the fast hardware dividers which essentually perform several steps of the trivial division algorithm at once. 2. The division can be computed as the multiplication by 1/x, where 1/x is computed as the Taylor series. The whole series can be computed in parallel if the hardware allows for that. 3. LUT and approximation. Vladimir Vassilevsky DSP and Mixed Signal Design Consultant http://www.abvolt.com

Reply by ●February 12, 20092009-02-12

On Thu, 12 Feb 2009 09:56:57 -0800 (PST), rickman <gnuarm@gmail.com> wrote:><snip> >Any idea how they are performing the divide that it runs as fast as >the multiply?Or how they are performing a multiply that is as slow as their divide? Jon

Reply by ●February 12, 20092009-02-12

On 2009-02-12, rickman <gnuarm@gmail.com> wrote:> On Feb 12, 10:30 am, Grant Edwards <gra...@visi.com> wrote: >> On 2009-02-12, CBFalconer <cbfalco...@yahoo.com> wrote: >> >> > In general, when using software floating point, you will find that >> > addition (or subtraction) is the slowest basic operation, due to >> > the need to find a common 'size' to inflict on both operands. >> > Division is the next slowest, and multiplication the fastest. >> >> I've not found that to be true on any of the platforms I've >> benchmarked. For example, I timed the four operations on a >> 6800, and add/sub was about 1ms, and mult/div was about 4ms. > > I am surprised at this result. I worked on array processors > many years ago and division does not have a direct method of > calculation. Instead they used an iterative approximation > method using multiplies to get the estimate. I believe that > for 32 bit floating point (not IEEE, it was before that) they > used 7 iterations which got very close. On a 100 MFLOPS > machine running at 25 MHz (ECL!) they did a adds and > multiplies in the same time. Of course, this is not software, > but the same complexity applies to software operations. In > general the adds require a denormalization, the add and a > renormalization while the multiply only requires the multiply > and normalization steps. However, the multiply can take more > than one operation compared to the add. > > I have read that to implement the full IEEE spec requires a > lot of extra steps for error checking which will slow down all > of it. > > Any idea how they are performing the divide that it runs as > fast as the multiply?That was years ago, so I may be mis-remembering something, and I no longer have access to the floating point library in question (IIRC, it was from US Software). IIRC, it was probably a 68HC11 rather than a 6800 as I originally stated. -- Grant Edwards grante Yow! Did YOU find a at DIGITAL WATCH in YOUR box visi.com of VELVEETA?

Reply by ●February 12, 20092009-02-12

On Thu, 12 Feb 2009 09:30:50 -0600, Grant Edwards <grante@visi.com> wrote:>On 2009-02-12, CBFalconer <cbfalconer@yahoo.com> wrote: > >> In general, when using software floating point, you will find that >> addition (or subtraction) is the slowest basic operation, due to >> the need to find a common 'size' to inflict on both operands. >> Division is the next slowest, and multiplication the fastest. > >I've not found that to be true on any of the platforms I've >benchmarked. For example, I timed the four operations on a >6800, and add/sub was about 1ms, and mult/div was about 4ms.The 6800 did not have a multiply instruction and even the 6809 multiply was _slow_, thus you had to perform the 24x24 bit mantissa multiplication by repeated shifts and adds (24 times). In float add/sub the denormalisation+normalisation phases typically required only a few bit shifts, seldom the full 24 bit shifts, requiring a considerably smaller number of (8 bit) instructions than the 24x24 bit multiply. However, if the instruction set contains single cycle reasonably wide unsigned integer multiply instruction, the float add/mul execution times would be much closer to each other. Paul

Reply by ●February 12, 20092009-02-12

On Thu, 12 Feb 2009 12:43:51 -0500, Walter Banks <walter@bytecraft.com> wrote:>As several people have pointed out the biggest time issue is >normalization on processors that don't have a barrel shifter.Just to add a little. For software implementations I've done for division, for example, the two inputs are already presumed to be normalized and the iterative division algorithm takes up the hog's share of the cycle count. Re-normalizing is usually hardly more than a few instructions to cover a few conditions. Where normalization has bit me is when first packing perviously non-normalized (fixed format) values prior to an integer (or FP) division in order to maximize useful bits in the result and with addition and subtraction where de-normalizing of one or the other is required. Often, I'll choose to instead perform the addition entirely in fixed point, jacking up the numerators so that a common divisor is assumed, and then performing the normalization and final division in a last step. Combinatorial barrel shifters are a big plus, often neglected in ALU designs for integer processors. It takes space though and end-use designers often don't look for it so I suppose it doesn't score well on the must-do list for manufacturers. Something else that probably doesn't rank high on the must-do list, as many aren't even aware of the possibility and don't look for it, is a simple, single-bit producing instruction for integer division that can be used as part of a sequence to achieve fuller divisions. The gates required are close to nil (trivial addition to ALU die space and no change to the longest combinatorial path, I think.) The larger cost may be pressure on the instruction space and having to write more documentation. Jon

Reply by ●February 12, 20092009-02-12

On 2009-02-12, Paul Keinanen <keinanen@sci.fi> wrote:>>I've not found that to be true on any of the platforms I've >>benchmarked. For example, I timed the four operations on a >>6800, and add/sub was about 1ms, and mult/div was about 4ms. > > The 6800 did not have a multiply instruction and even the 6809 > multiply was _slow_, thus you had to perform the 24x24 bit mantissa > multiplication by repeated shifts and adds (24 times). > > In float add/sub the denormalisation+normalisation phases typically > required only a few bit shifts, seldom the full 24 bit shifts, > requiring a considerably smaller number of (8 bit) instructions than > the 24x24 bit multiply. > > However, if the instruction set contains single cycle reasonably wide > unsigned integer multiply instruction, the float add/mul execution > times would be much closer to each other.Good point. The platforms I'm remembering didn't have hw multiply (or if they did, it was pretty narrow). Oddly, the platforms where I've used floating point were all slow (and often 8-bit). I've used ARM7 quite a bit which has a barrel-shifter and hw multiply, but never did floating point on that platform. -- Grant

Reply by ●February 12, 20092009-02-12

Grant Edwards wrote:> CBFalconer <cbfalconer@yahoo.com> wrote: > >> In general, when using software floating point, you will find that >> addition (or subtraction) is the slowest basic operation, due to >> the need to find a common 'size' to inflict on both operands. >> Division is the next slowest, and multiplication the fastest. > > I've not found that to be true on any of the platforms I've > benchmarked. For example, I timed the four operations on a > 6800, and add/sub was about 1ms, and mult/div was about 4ms.Try adding two values with magnitudes differing by the register size (roughly). That means what the integral part of the FP value is held in. -- [mail]: Chuck F (cbfalconer at maineline dot net) [page]: <http://cbfalconer.home.att.net> Try the download section.

Reply by ●February 12, 20092009-02-12

Paul Keinanen wrote:> Grant Edwards <grante@visi.com> wrote: >> CBFalconer <cbfalconer@yahoo.com> wrote: >> >>> In general, when using software floating point, you will find that >>> addition (or subtraction) is the slowest basic operation, due to >>> the need to find a common 'size' to inflict on both operands. >>> Division is the next slowest, and multiplication the fastest. >> >> I've not found that to be true on any of the platforms I've >> benchmarked. For example, I timed the four operations on a >> 6800, and add/sub was about 1ms, and mult/div was about 4ms. > > The 6800 did not have a multiply instruction and even the 6809 > multiply was _slow_, thus you had to perform the 24x24 bit mantissa > multiplication by repeated shifts and adds (24 times). > > In float add/sub the denormalisation+normalisation phases typically > required only a few bit shifts, seldom the full 24 bit shifts, > requiring a considerably smaller number of (8 bit) instructions than > the 24x24 bit multiply. > > However, if the instruction set contains single cycle reasonably wide > unsigned integer multiply instruction, the float add/mul execution > times would be much closer to each other.For a complete example of an 8080 system, designed for speed and accuracy, including trig, log, exponential functions, see: "Falconer Floating Point Arithmetic" by Charles Falconer, in DDJ, March 1979, p.4 and April 1979, p.16. There were later improvements, basically minor, which improved the multiply and divide times. -- [mail]: Chuck F (cbfalconer at maineline dot net) [page]: <http://cbfalconer.home.att.net> Try the download section.