This book is intended as a hands-on guide for anyone planning to use the Philips LPC2000 family of microcontrollers in a new design. It is laid out both as a reference book and as a tutorial. It is assumed that you have some experience in programming microcontrollers for embedded systems and are familiar with the C language. The bulk of technical information is spread over the first four chapters, which should be read in order if you are completely new to the LPC2000 and the ARM7 CPU.
This application report describes how to compare ultralow-power MCUs. It discusses the key differences between popular low-power MCUs and how to interpret features and specifications and apply them to application requirements
This document contains a lot of what you need to know to get the most out of the MSP430. The MSP430 line is renowned for it's low power usage, and to really utilize it well you have to architect your software to be an interrupt driven device that utilizes the low power modes.
PID (proportional, integral, derivative) control is not as complicated as it sounds. Follow these simple implementation steps for quick results.
[Best paper on Reed-Solomon error correction I have ever read -- and it's from the BBC!] Reed-Solomon error correction has several applications in broadcasting,in particular forming part of the specification for the ETSI digital terrestrial television standard, known as DVB-T. Hardware implementations of coders and decoders for Reed-Solomon error correction are complicated and require some knowledge of the theory of Galois fields on which they are based. This note describes the underlying mathematics and the algorithms used for coding and decoding,with particular emphasis on their realisation in logic circuits. Worked examples are provided to illustrate the processes involved.
This article is about dynamic memory allocation in C in the context of embedded programming. It describes the process of dynamically allocating memory with visual aids. The article concludes with a practical data communications switch example which includes a sample code in C.
This book is intended for learning advanced linux programming.
This book identifies seven major Linux topics: basic setup, environments and applications, the Internet, servers, administration, and network administration. These topics are integrated into the different ways Red Hat presents its distribution: as a desktop workstation, network workstation, server, and development platform
This book is about writing Linux device drivers. It covers the design and development of major device classes supported by the kernel, including those I missed during my Linux-on-Watch days. The discussion of each driver family starts by looking at the corresponding technology, moves on to develop a practical example, and ends by looking at relevant kernel source files. Before foraying into the world of device drivers, however, this book introduces you to the kernel and discusses the important features of 2.6 Linux, emphasizing those portions that are of special interest to device driver writers.
As CPU cores become both faster and more numerous, the limiting factor for most programs is now, and will be for some time, memory access. Hardware designers have come up with ever more sophisticated memory handling and acceleration techniques–such as CPU caches–but these cannot work optimally without some help from the programmer. Unfortunately, neither the structure nor the cost of using the memory subsystem of a computer or the caches on CPUs is well understood by most programmers. This paper explains the structure of memory subsystems in use on modern commodity hardware, illustrating why CPU caches were developed, how they work, and what programs should do to achieve optimal performance by utilizing them.
The availability of powerful I2C buffers that drive their I/Os on both sides to a nominal ground or ‘zero offset’ logic level allows the removal of noise introduced into one section of a larger bus system. That ‘regeneration’ of clean I2C signals enables building long I2C buses by combining together relatively short bus sections, each say less than 20 meters, using such buffers or multiplexers that contain them. Conventional twisted pair communication cabling with its convenient connectors, and a ‘modular’ I2C system approach, make large system assembly easy. Each drop point or node can be individually selected for bidirectional data communication with the Master just by using normal I2C software addressing. As an example, a system is described for control of LED lighting displays and it is suggested that the power for the LEDs, and the I2C control system, might be economically provided using ‘extra low voltage’ distribution at 48 V using either the control signal cable or similar low cost wiring in a manner similar to that used in ‘Power over the Ethernet’ systems. The simplicity and flexibility of this approach makes it attractive to consider as an alternative to other control systems such as RS-485 or CAN bus.
This book covers all of the common semiconductor devices and their principles of operation. However, the true value of this reference is in the fact that it provides key circuits and applications where they come in handy. A few of the devices that are covered in this book are Bipolar junction transistors, diodes, JFETs, thyristors, OPAMPs and FETs. This book will be a good reference in your library that has a clear style of explanation.
Best Practices for Grounding Your Electrical Equipment A look at circuit grounding and its importance to you, as well as the US AC power system and its use of earth ground (Part 1 of 3)
This tutorial answers the question “What’s a multicore microcontroller?”
The embedded software industry wants microprocessors with increased computing functionality that maintains or reduces space, weight, and power (SWaP). Single core processors were the key embedded industry solution between 1980 and 2000 when large performance increases were being achieved on a yearly basis and were fulfilling the prophecy of Moore's Law. Moore's Law states that "the number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years." With the increased transistors, came microprocessors with greater computing throughput while space, weight and power were decreasing. However, this 'free lunch' did not last forever. The additional power required for greater performance improvements became too great starting in 2000. Hence, single core microprocessors are no longer an optimal solution.
Building an embedded system from an idea to a product is a slow and expensive process requiring a lot of expertise. Depending on the developer’s expertise, the required quantity and price level of the final product, and the time and money available for development, the developer can build a device from different granularity of components, ranging from ready-made platforms, kits, and modules to individual components. Generally, solutions requiring less expertise, time and money produce products with higher production costs. The main contribution of this thesis is the EOC (Embedded Object Concept) and Atomi II Framework. EOC utilizes common object-oriented methods used in software by applying them to small electronic modules, which create complete functional entities. The conceptual idea of the embedded objects is implemented with the Atomi II framework, which contains several techniques for making the EOC a commercially feasible implementation. The EOC and the Atomi II Framework decreases the difficulty level of making embedded systems by enabling a use of ready-made modules to build systems. It enables automatic conversion of a device made from such modules into an integrated PCB, lowering production costs compared to other modular approaches. Furthermore, it also enables an automatic production tester generation due to its modularity. These properties lower the number of skills required for building an embedded system and quicken the path from an idea to a commercially applicable device. A developer can also build custom modules of his own if he possesses the required expertise. The test cases demonstrate the Atomi II Framework techniques in real world applications, and demonstrate the capabilities of Atomi objects. According to our test cases and estimations, an Atomi based device becomes approximately 10% more expensive than a device built from individual components, but saves up to 50% time, making it feasible to manufacture up to 10-50k quantities with this approach.
Pervasive networks have led to widespread use of embedded systems, like cell phones, PDAs, RFIDs etc., in increasingly diverse applications. Many of these embedded system appli- cations handle sensitive data (e.g., credit card information on a mobile phone/PDA) or perform critical functions (e.g., medical devices or automotive electronics), and the use of security protocols is imperative to maintain condentiality, integrity and authentication of these applications. Typically embedded systems have low computing power and nite energy supply based on a battery, and these factors are at odds with the computationally intensive nature of the cryptographic algorithms underlying many security protocols. In addition, secure embedded systems are vulnerable to attacks, like physical tampering, malware and side-channel attacks. Thus, design of secure embedded systems is guided by the following factors: small form factor, good performance, low energy consumption (and, thus,longer battery life), and robustness to attacks. This thesis presents our work on tackling three issues in the design of secure embedded systems: energy consumption, performance and robustness to side-channel attacks. First, we present our work on optimizing the energy consumption of the widely employed secure sockets layer (SSL) protocol running on an embedded system. We discuss results of energy analysis of various cryptographic algorithms, and the manner in which this information can be used to adapt the operation of SSL protocol to save energy. Next, we present results of our experiments on optimizing the performance of Internet protocol security (IPSec) protocol on an embedded processor. Depending on the mode of operation, the IPSec computation is dominated by cryptographic or non-cryptographic processing. We demonstrate how both these components of the IPSec protocol can be optimized by leveraging the extensible and congurable features of an embedded processor. Next, we introduce a satisfability-based framework for enabling side-channel attacks on cryptographic software running on an embedded processor. This framework enables us to identify variables in the software implementations which result in the disclosure of the secret key used. Thus, security of software implementations can be improved by better protection of these identified variables. Finally, we conclude by introducing a novel memory integrity checking protocol that has much lower communication complexity than existing Merkle tree-based protocols while incurring a modest price in computation on the processor. This scheme is based on Toeplitz matrices, and can be very efficiently realized on embedded systems with hardware extensions for bit matrix operations.
The low-noise system architecture and the tailored frequency response employed in the HDO4000A, HDO6000A, HDO8000A and MDA800A series provides the foundation for enhancing ADC sample rates through additional techniques. In this case, carefully constructed filters combined with a pristine front-end amplifier and a frequency response carefully limited to 1 GHz provide the opportunity to provide more measurement precision than would otherwise be possible. The technique utilized to achieve higher measurement precision is interpolation, and this technique is used by default as an Enhanced Sample Rate up to 10 GS/s. By integrating the Enhanced Sample Rate functionality with the normal Timebase controls for Sample Rate, Time and Acquisition Memory adjustment, the oscilloscopes are optimized for best waveform signal fidelity in all situations.
Next-generation industrial, vision, medical and other systems seek to combine highend graphics and rich user interfaces with hard real-time performance, prioritization and precision.Today’s industrial PCs running 64-bit Windows, complemented by a separate scheduler on multicore multiprocessors, can deliver that precise real-time performance on software-defined peripherals.
Best Practices for Grounding Your Electrical Equipment Examining the role of ground as a voltage stabilizer and transient limiter, along with tips on improving safety and signal integrity (Part 3 of 3)