## Basic Sensors for an Autonomous Vehicle

March 27, 2016

The following are a few basic sensors that can be used to help an autonomous vehicle navigate its environment.

The faster the vehicle is traveling, the faster the sensor must be processed.

Moving vehicles could knock something over or cause damage to a person or object if it collides with them.

Drop-off and line sensors function better when mounted to the front of the vehicle.

Drop-off and collision sensors should be mounted front and rear, if your vehicle can back up.

## 3 Good News

March 9, 20161 comment
Good News #1

Last week, I announced a new and ambitious reward program that will be funded by the new Vendors Directory.

This week, I am happy to announce that we have our firsts two sponsors!  Quantum Leaps & Abelon Systems have agreed to pay the sponsorship fee to be listed in the new Vendors Directory.  Because of their support, there is now some money in the reward pool ($1,000) and enough to pay for the firsts 500 'beers' awarded. Please... ## Padé Delay is Okay Today March 1, 20166 comments This article is going to be somewhat different in that I’m not really writing it for the typical embedded systems engineer. Rather it’s kind of a specialized topic, so don’t be surprised if you get bored and move on to something else. That’s fine by me. Anyway, let’s just jump ahead to the punchline. Here’s a numerical simulation of a step response to a $p=126, q=130$ Padé approximation of a time delay: Impressed? Maybe you should be. This... ## SIGFOX – A new network technology for IoT comms? February 29, 20165 comments It’s quite likely you've never heard of SIGFOX, or if you have it has been sketchy at best on details. So what is it, and why should you care? Well, if you have a need for low cost, low power data collection which doesn't involve transferring megabytes of data and doesn't have to be particularly “real-time” e.g. you only need your data say once an hour, or even once a day, then SIGFOX may be just what you are looking for. SIGFOX has been designed from the ground up as a low... ## Cutting Through the Confusion with ARM Cortex-M Interrupt Priorities February 26, 2016 The insanely popular ARM Cortex-M processor offers very versatile interrupt priority management, but unfortunately, the multiple priority numbering conventions used in managing the interrupt priorities are often counter-intuitive, inconsistent, and confusing, which can lead to bugs. In this post I attempt to explain the subject and cut through the confusion. The Inverse Relationship Between Priority Numbers and Urgency of the Interrupts The most important fact to know is that ARM... ## The New Forum is LIVE! February 18, 20161 comment After months of hard word, I am very excited to introduce to you the new forum interface. Here are the key features: 1- Easily add images to a post by drag & dropping the images in the editor 2- Easily attach files to a post by drag & dropping the files in the editor 3- Add latex equations to a post and they will be rendered with Mathjax (tutorial) 4- Add a code snippet and surround the code with ## Metal detection: building the detector February 6, 20164 comments IntroductionBefore starting, you may want to read this post describing the BFO stage: //www.embeddedrelated.com/showarticle/911.php I have detailed the implementation of a BFO stage for detecting metal. Now it has been validated on the bench, the next step is to integrate it in a stand alone instrument for testing on the field. A few things have to be done to reach this goal: • make a PCB for the electronics, • house the PCB in a box, • add a power supply, • make a frame to hold... ## Cortex-M Exception Handling (Part 2) February 1, 20169 comments The first part of this article described the conditions for an exception request to be accepted by a Cortex-M processor, mainly concerning the relationship of its priority with respect to the current execution priority. This part will describe instead what happens after an exception request is accepted and becomes active. PROCESSOR OPERATION AND PRIVILEGE MODE Before discussing in detail the sequence of actions that occurs within the processor after an exception request... ## Metal detection: beat frequency oscillator January 30, 20161 comment Plan Introduction Theory Electronics Software Tests ReferencesNext part: building the detector 1. Introduction This article discusses the implementation of a beat frequency oscillator (BFO) stage for metal detector. While they are mentioned here and there, the article does not detail other important electronic stages such as the power supply, and user interface, the coil or the detector frame. I may write other articles on these topics, and other detection methods.Before... ## Autonomous vehicle - design questions to ponder January 27, 2016 When designing an autonomous or remotely-controlled vehicle, there are a few factors to take into consideration. Three of these are purpose, environment, and terrain. What is the purpose of the vehicle? Will it be used in an industrial setting with people moving around it that it must not run over? Will it be used in a hazardous environment, like Fukushima or Chernobyl, where it would be exposed to high levels of radiation and must be cleaned or left behind? If it must be left behind, any... ## How to make a heap profiler May 23, 20141 comment We'll see how to make a heap profiler. Example code for this post makes up heapprof, a working 250-line heap profiler for programs using malloc/free. It works out of the box on Linux (tested on "real" programs like gdb and python). The main point though is being easy to port and modify to suit your needs. The code, build and test scripts are at github. Why roll your own heap profiler? • It's easy! And fun, if you're that sort of person. What, not reasons enough? OK, how... ## Elliptic Curve Cryptography November 16, 20156 comments Secure online communications require encryption. One standard is AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) from NIST. But for this to work, both sides need the same key for encryption and decryption. This is called Private Key encryption. Public Key encryption is used to create a private key between two sides that have not previously communicated. Compared to the history of encryption, Public Key methods are very recent having been started in the 1970's. Elliptic... ## Already 3000+ Attendees Registered for the Upcoming Embedded Online Conference February 14, 2020 Chances are you already know, through the newsletter or banners on the Related sites, about the upcoming Embedded Online Conference. Chances are you also already know that you have until the end of the month of February to register for free. And chances are that you are one of the more than 3000 pro-active engineers who have already registered. But If you are like me and have a tendency to do tomorrow what can be done today, maybe you haven't registered yet. You may... ## Reverse engineering wireless wall outlets July 19, 2014 Introduction I am improving the domotics framework that I described in a previous article://www.embeddedrelated.com/showarticle/605.php I want to support wireless wall outlets, allowing me to switch devices power from a remote location over HTTP. To do so, I could design my own wireless wall outlets and use a hardware similar to the previous one, based on the NRF905 chipset. The problem is that such a product would not be certified, and that would be an issue regarding the home insurance,... ## Jaywalking Around the Compiler December 9, 20193 comments Our team had another code review recently. I looked at one of the files, and bolted upright in horror when I saw a function that looked sort of like this: void some_function(SOMEDATA_T *psomedata) { asm volatile("push CORCON"); CORCON = 0x00E2; do_some_other_stuff(psomedata); asm volatile("pop CORCON"); } There is a serious bug here — do you see what it is? ## Ten Little Algorithms, Part 6: Green’s Theorem and Swept-Area Detection June 18, 20173 comments Other articles in this series: This article is mainly an excuse to scribble down some cryptic-looking mathematics — Don’t panic! Close your eyes and scroll down if you feel nauseous — and... ## Practical CRCs for Embedded Systems October 20, 20157 comments CRCs are a very practical tool for embedded systems: you're likely to need to use one as part of a communications protocol or to verify the integrity of a program image before writing it to flash. But CRCs can be difficult to understand and tricky to implement. The first time I attempted to write CRC code from scratch I failed once. Then twice. Then three times. Eventually I gave up and used an existing library. I consider myself intelligent: I got A's... ## How to Include MathJax Equations in SVG With Less Than 100 Lines of JavaScript! May 23, 20146 comments Today’s short and tangential note is an account of how I dug myself out of Documentation Despair. I’ve been working on some block diagrams. You know, this sort of thing, to describe feedback control systems: And I had a problem. How do I draw diagrams like this? I don’t have Visio and I don’t like Visio. I used to like Visio. But then it got Microsofted. I can use MATLAB and Simulink, which are great for drawing block diagrams. Normally you use them to create a... ## Arduino robotics #2 - chassis, locomotion and power October 16, 2013 Arduino Robotics Beginner robotics is a series of article chronicling my first autonomous robot build, Clusterbot. This build is meant to be affordable, relatively easy and instructive. The total cost of the build is around$50.

1. Arduino robotics - motor control2. Arduino robotics - chassis, locomotion and power3. Arduino robotics - wiring, coding and a test run4.

## Digital PLL's -- Part 2

June 15, 20162 comments

In Part 1, we found the time response of a 2nd order PLL with a proportional + integral (lead-lag) loop filter.  Now let’s look at this PLL in the Z-domain [1, 2].  We will find that the response is characterized by a loop natural frequency ωn and damping coefficient ζ.

Having a Z-domain model of the DPLL will allow us to do three things:

Compute the values of loop filter proportional gain KL and integrator gain KI that give the desired loop natural...